Saturday, September 10, 2016

Education Week Class Notes: Martin Harris, Seer Stones, Joseph Smith's Presidential Campaign, and Apostolic Call Stories

Here we have a mix of classes about various aspects of Church History. I hope you'll find this info as fascinating as I did!

Martin Harris: More than A lost Manuscript: Entrepreneur to Witness (by Susan Easton Black)
BYU Studies presentation: A journal subscription that publishes books. Working on a book on Martin Harris.  It’s like Education Week in a journal.

How she got into this project:
15 years ago at a donor’s meeting, She wanted to find the 116 lost pages and a philanthropist decided to throw money behind that.  If she didn’t find it, she decided to do a biography on Martin Harris.
She used looked for voyage and ocean and Lehi as search terms to try find things that might have stuff on the 116 lost pages.  Found a journal by a guy from Utah who took a ship across the ocean. Doh!

Martin didn’t write journal, life story, memoirs, but the biography is 500 pages.
This class is on his life as Entrepreneur to the time he was a Book of Mormon scribe.

His family was from England.  There were six men named Thomas Harris that came to America.
He was a non-conformist, thought about religion, but didn’t want church-state leadership in one man.  Arrived before 1638.
Settled in Prvoidence, Rhode Island.. 
Another person there was Roger Williams whose descendent is Jeffrey Holland. 
Another descendant of Thomas Harris is Dallin H .Oaks.

The Harrises supported themselves with quarries.  Harris Quarries in Rhode Island, which was a financial success.
They associated with Quakers, Ann Hutchinson.
Quakers – no paid ministry, no college, sex-segrated rooms, had worship service with set start and end times.  Everyone sat quiet until someone was inspired to speak.

Nathan Harris moves to New York. City. Martin Harris born 1783 in Easton, New York.
Nathan Harris was adventurous and moves a lot. Looking for fortune.
He goes to Swift’s Landing in New York, which became Palmyra, New York.
He buys 600 acres (he’s not poor). Bought at 50 cents/acre.
Nathan Harris’s nicknames: “The Nimrod” “Trout Harris”  He likes hunting and fishing.  He built a pond on his property and kept a pet trout.  The trout bit a neighbor’s nose when Nathan told him to put his face in the water.

Martin’s Youth.
Involved on father’s farm, shoe ship, tannery.  Did not go to school with other kids.
Quarker meetings as early as 1790 in private homes. Martin went to these.

Nathan Harris and civic duties – pathmaster (kept paths clear for wagons from brush), constable, tax collector.
Nathan turned farm management to oldest son Emer Harris.

Martin age 25, manages farm and business affairs.
He was good at it and succeeded.  He was an eligible bachelor because of this.
Lucy Harris age 16, (his cousin) catches his eye. He marries his uncle’s daughter. 
Married March 27, 1808 in a Quaker wedding. 
Quaker marriage tradition: When the man takes the woman’s hand and the woman doesn’t pull it back, then they are married.

Martin and Lucy choose to stay in Palmyra.  In 1808 there were 2600 people there.   Proposed Erie canal.
Martin opened a shop not on Main street, but continues managing the farm.
He registers a mark for domestic animals. 
He’s elected as a town officer, overseeing highways and fences in 1811.  Each fence pole has to be at least five feet tall.
He pieces together a 150 acre farm.  Future looks bright.

War of 1812.  At this time, “None more promising” than Martin Harris.  The war destroys everything.
John Swift gathers able-bodied men 18-45 aged, and Martin Harris doesn’t want to go to war.  He hires a substitute to fight for three months.  He served 9 days in the war in person. 
Later he learned veterans got bounty-land, so he tries to get land, but substitutes didn’t count.  Government says 9 days in-person service is not enough, but 14 days would have been fine.

In 1816, Martin is a gentleman and a farmer of respectability.
Joseph Smith Sr. Family comes to Palmyra.  The Smiths set up a cake and beer shop.
All the Smith children could do a good day’s work for anyone, and people knew it.
Harris hired Joseph Smith Jr. and Joseph was a good worker.

In 1818 the Smith’s contract for a farm 3-miles from Harris’s farm.
Religious revivals in 1818. (Quaker, Universalist, Restorationist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopal)  Circuit riders try to convert the unchurched.
Martin Harris was hugely interested in the revivals.
He knows the Bible well.  He shops for a religion. He leaves Quakers and goes to all the churches.
In 1818 at age 35, Martin says he is an un-churched Christian by divine manifestation. (He had some sort of spiritual experience that gave him revelation.) In it, he learned the Lord’s church is not upon the earth, and the trinity definition is problematic.  He decides to wait.

Martin is a proponent of home industry. He becomes a weaver.
He’s part of the Ontario County Agricultural Society.   He’s a judge for small animals.
He was vitally interested in Erie Canal (wants to get it 1 mile from his house), Greek Christian Revelation (finances the Greeks to save them from the Turks), he has views of banks (pro-specie) , anti-Masonic.

Martin decides to hire more Smith family as workers.  He hires Joseph Smith Sr. and Hyrum. They tell him about Joseph visits from angel Moroni.
Suddenly other things don’t seem to matter as much as this. 

In 1827 after 17 years of marriage, Lucy suddenly gets worried about finances.
She wants property and a house (but not the house that has just been built). 
Property is deeded to her brother, who deeds it to her.   Lucy now has a “private purse” so she’s not accountable to her husband for how she spends the money, which was rare at that time.
But Martin and Lucy’s marriage is not going well.

In October 1827.  Joseph gets the plates from Moroni.
Martin doesn’t learn it until October.
Lucy Mack Smith sent to Martin’s house, doesn’t like his wife.  Lucy Smith tells Martin, “Joseph wants to tell you what’s happened”
Once Martin knows, he says, “Hire a hand to work a year for me; I shall travel”  This statement tells us his marriage is bad, and he’s also prosperous.
Lucy Harris learns something about the plates in a dream, and gives $28 for the translation.  (The first money given to help for the translation.)
Martin gets to pick up the box the plates are kept and knows the Smiths aren’t rich enough to them to afford. The Spirit testifies to him.
He helps them keep the plates safe.

Martin becomes Joseph’s financial back-up. He helps Joseph pay his debts before he leaves town.
No one else in the early days helped as much as Martin Harris.
Martin journeys to Harmony, but doesn’t tell his wife. Marital strife.
Martin takes copies of the characters to Dr. Samuel Mitchell and Charles Anthon.
Martin and Lucy visit Joseph in Harmony.
Martin scribes for Joseph.  Martin knows his wife’s feelings, thinks he has to take the pages to show his wife.  Three requests and a final yes.  Martin promised to show only to five people related to Martin.
He takes 116 pages to Palmyra June 14, 1828. Made a covenant to follow the conditions.  Had pages for three weeks.

Joseph goes to Palmyra.  Has Hyrum to tell Martin to bring the manuscript. Martin can’t find the manuscript.  Martin is slow to come inside, sitting on the fence.
Martin says “I’ve lost my soul!”   “Have you lost the manuscript?”  “You’ve lost your soul and mine as well” 
These were the darkest days in Joseph’s life.  Not Liberty or Carthage jail. Black as night, heavens were closed.  Joseph knew he was no longer called and chosen because of disobedience.
They try to look in Martin’s house, confront Lucy.  Martin thought Lucy did it. She makes a separate bedroom from Martin. Years later, she says the manuscript was burned. Others say it was stolen. The Lord says it was changed.

The Lord needed a rich man to financially back the restoration process. 
Martin Harris became an object of charity at the end of his life.
He had difficult family relationships and had to give them up because of Joseph Smith.

The Best of BYU Studies: Seer Stones and Traditional Religious Practices in the Light of Folklore Studies and Biblical Scholarship (by Eric A. Eliason)
(Image of the chocolate-colored seer stone with striations.)
The released image of the seer stone caused a stir and didn’t fit the narrative we’re familiar with.
It is likely the stone he used a lot of the time when Joseph Smith translated. He possibly used a white one too.  The brown one has the best provenance we know of.  The white one isn’t quite as certain.

Folklorists haven’t looked at early Mormon folk magic before.
Bottom line --- “Frontier folk magic” is actually Biblically-based traditions in keeping with Joseph Smith’s claim to be a prophet.

Caution: When we step into the past, it is we who are out of place. We have to get to know the past on its own terms. 
“Folk magic”
Mark Hofmann and the Salamander Letter forgery.  Tried to recast the BofM as a salamander-given object. When people got wise, he started bombing and murdering people.

LDS historians help their field see that “folk magic” was common practice in America.
Professional folklorists saw no big deal and mostly did not engage.
Folklore is meaningful artistic expression passed on mouth-to-mouth within specific cultural groups. (Examples: stories, traditions, customs, beliefs, practices, songs, and dances.)
Mormons are a big part of folklore disciplines; only in religious disciples are they bigger.
Other folklore forms: pre-birth experience narratives, conversion stories, form and content of priesthood blessings, promptings, among our most sacred and cherished experiences.
(Still the Small Voice, Tom Mould, written by a “dry Mormon”, stories of promptings.)
Folklore is often validated by science. (Ex: Ethnobotany example, spiritual practices too?)
Scientists research plants that indigenous peoples have used for long periods.
Just because it is folklore, doesn’t mean it’s NOT true.
Folklore is defined by means of transmission, not truth value.  Transmitted face-to-face rather than through authority structures.
LDS folklorists never got involved in discussions because they never saw them as a threat.

Seer Stones, Urim and Thummim and translation. 
Art depictions are not always accurate, but only a general idea.
--Joseph didn’t look at the plates while he translated.
--Oliver never saw the plates until he was one of the witnesses.
--Joseph usually looked at the seer stone in a hat.  This can seem silly, but words of light appearing on a dark stone is cool.
We have a changing understanding.
See the Church’s article on Book of Mormon translation.  http:://

Properly understood, Urim and Thummim are fairly interchangeable terms with seer stones.
Both refer to items used by the prophet to gain information from the Lord.

Uses of seer stones and peep stones in 1800s in America:
--Lost object finding
--Well-digging dowsing, water-diving, or water-witching
--Treasure seeking
--Direction-finding (like a compass or Liahona)
--Religious insight
--Discovering cheating spouses (private eye work)
--Finding thieves (police work)
This indicates practices of Joseph Smith and his associates. This is all about finding the truth.
This is like praying, singing hymns, reading the Bible; lots of Americans did these things—not just Mormons—and they saw it as religion and legitimate.

To us, to call it “folk magic” is to project our ideas onto the past.
Where they a bunch of pagan magicians? Not really.

The seer stone is a reference to the Bible.
1 Sam. 9:9 tells us a seer is an earlier term for a prophet, one who saw visions, dreams, or scenes in the mind’s eye, or even with the natural eyes.
God gives the seer insight into the meaning of his or her visions. (2 Sam. 24:11)
God speaks through objects in the Bible
Urim and Thummim, the ephod, and lots were all physical objects used to find God’s will.
We’re not sure how they worked. It might seem like dice or games of chance.
They saw these things as a legitimate way for God to reveal himself.
No such thing as coincidence
Seer stones fit the Bible tradition.

Casting lots to discover new apostle (Acts 1:24-26)
Non-Israelites casting lots to discover who has caused this storm? (Jonah 1:7-8)
Describing and using the ephod or Urim and Thummim to determine what God wants (Ex. 28:4, 29:5, Lev. 8:7, Judg. 8:26-27, 17:5, 1 Sam. 21:9, 2 Sam. 6:14, Ex. 28:30, Lev. 8:8, Deut. 33:8, 1 Sam. 28:6, Hosea 3:4, Ezra 2:63, Neh. 7:65)

Seer stones and other divining practices can be seen as evidences of the restoration of Biblical practices, not paganism.

Scriptural understandings of Magic
Joseph in Egypt had a divining cup, but Saul visited the witch of Endor to conjure Samuel
Pharaoh’s magicians turned their sticks to snakes like Moses.
Magic-versus-religion is not represented in ancient New Easter literatures.
Magic was not illegal or worrisome, but the authorization for doing it was the thing at issue.
It is not the form but its authorization that determines its legitimacy.

Joseph Smith and his family themselves showed unease with earlier practices at the same time they persisted in using them.
His detractors accused him of occult practices at the same time they used them themselves. (Ex: Doctor Philastus Hurlburt. His name Doctor had nothing to do with his credentials, it was his actual name. He was thought to be Doctor because he was a seventh son and thought to have special abilities.)
David Whitmer left Mormonism in part over Joseph’s moving away from practices we’d see as unusual today.

Divining in the D&C 
Oliver Cowdery could use a rod as a divining or dowsing tool.  (D&C 7)
The Lord recognized his ability. In early versions of the D&C it is called “the sprout” instead of “gift of Aaron”
(People think “gift of Aaron” means an Aaronic side-kick gift, but it’s not.)

What about now? 
There are still people who use dowsing. 
Eliason has some students from the country who see people using divining rods and are annoyed that people think it is weird. At least one student in each of his classes every semester. One had a bishop who doused for a Mutual activity.
Sarajevo had a resurgence of dowsing when water supplies were blown up. They needed the dousers.

We have a tendency to think, “If I’m not familiar with it, it must be weird.”
Magic is a virtually useless term.
Scholars tried to define magic, but definitions usually come down to “What other people do is magic. What me and the people I know do is science or true religion.”
Examples: “Put on a jacket or you’ll catch a cold” (No evidence for this saying.)
Eliason didn’t give many examples, because he knows people will object when they find their closely loved practices are considered magic.

Concluding Summary:
Folklore is often religiously and scientifically true.
Seer stones and Urim and Thummim are fairly similar terms.
19th folk magic was deeply rooted in the Bible.
Joseph’s practices can be seen as evidence for, not against prophecy.
Magic is not just some old thing but still with us
Magic is a relative concept, not intrinsic.

Joseph Smith: Candidate for US President (by Susan Easton Black)
United States in 1844 consisted of 26 states.
Parties were Democrat and Whig
Democrats had a majority of states.

National Issues
Issue: Manifest destiny.  Should America take over beyond the Mississippi and go from Atlantic to Pacific?
Many considered US as the stone cut out of the mountain without hands and fill the whole earth.
Issue: Annex Texas or not?  Texas was owned by Mexico.
Issue: Slavery.  It wasn’t decided until 1860s. Talk centered about States rights and whether they could choose whether to be slave states or not.
Issue: Mormonism.  (Became a hot-button issue in the 1850s) 

Presidential hopefuls were Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun
Martin Van Buran had been president, but wanted to be president again.  Joseph Smith could not get redress for Mormons. Van Buren said the cause was just but could do nothing for them.
Calhoun was a southerner and a states rights advocate.

Lewis Case and Richard Johnson were candidates, had served as vice presidents under Van Buren

Candidates Henry Clay and James K. Polk.  Clay county Mormons lived in was named after him.
Polk was strong manifest destiny and won in 1844.

At the time of this election, Illinois was a swing state. Illinois votes would name the next president.

The vote of Joseph Smith
By 1843 he is mayor of one of the largest towns in Illinois and concerned about who to vote for.  Only men could vote.  The prophet would announce who to vote for.
Joseph announced he could command 20,000 votes.  Joseph believes he can name and vote for the next president.

Joseph Smith wrote to each candidate and asked what they would do to get the Mormons their lands back in Jackson County Missouri.  By this time they’d been gone for a decade.
Some candidates did not take the time to write back.
Henry Clay and Calhoun wrote back. 
Clay (Whig) they say it is an issue to consider but won’t make a decision until after the election. (Committing to something definite would lose the vote of either Missouri or Illinois.)

By Jan 1844 Joseph feels he has given the candidates enough time to reply.  He calls his first nation-wide political meeting in the red brick store.  (Everything was painted red inside)
The bottom floor was the store, the upstairs was sacred space, translating room, forming the relief society, and other things.
No women were invited to the meeting.
Present: Pratts, Woodruff, Young, William Smith.  All members of the 12 and presiding bishop. This was his think-tank.

Joseph Smith asks, “What do we do with our vote in 1844?” 
Neither party would do anything for them.
Some said, “We shouldn’t vote.” Other’s argued not voting doesn’t show patriotism.
They decide to put up a dark horse candidate who would help them get their lands back.
Willard Richards. A junior member of the quorum. He decides to “throw his vote away” on “General Joseph Smith.”  Everyone agrees excitedly.
Parades were the social activity. Parade through Nauvoo!!  General Joseph Smith for president!

Who to choose for vice president candidate?
Considered were:
--James Arlington Bennett of New York (nonmember who ran New York Sun)
--Colonel Solomon Copeland (man in Tennessee) 
Each of these men said in response to request, “NEVER associate my name with yours!”

They choose Sidney Rigdon for vice president.  He was in 1st presidency, but moved to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. He was attending the Baptist church (!) 
Church had voted to retain Sidney in the first presidency, but Joseph didn’t want him there. But he’d want him in political matters.

Platform for the “Reform Party” 
A non-party president who would:
--Restore the lands of inheritance to Latter-day-Saints in Jackson County.
--Reduce Congress’s pay and size  ($2/day) A farmer makes about the same amount. But a farmer is honest.
--Expand the United States into northern hemisphere Alaska, Canada, Mexico, Central America.  Joseph called it all Zion.  He wanted to pull in South America in his second term.
--Eliminate slavery with compensation from land sales.  (Platform mostly written by W.W. Phelps.)  Give the slaves an opportunity to either stay or go back to Africa at government expense.
--Standardized monetary System.  Remember, in 1837 there was a nation-wide run on the banks that caused national depression.  This caused Kirtland Safety Society to fail.  The nation was so leery of banks.  There was no bank in Nauvoo. Banks had individual printed money and you didn’t know if they had species to back it.  (Joseph’s idea was compelling.)
--Jail reform.  70,000 men in debtor’s prison at that time.  Jails needed to be places for men to learn to contribute to society.

Joseph’s campaign from January to March was nowhere. 
There were no political missionaries.

Council of 50 in March 1844. 
Started with a revelation which isn’t in D&C. 
Council of 50 had political ramifications.
Had 12 apostles and non-members, high-ranking members. 
Some got carried away with it.
They looked forward to when Christ would reign as king of kings and speculated about what countries they’d like to reign once Christ came.

Brigham Young suggests Joseph Smith call political missionaries.
Ask for volunteers in March. Thousands wanted to be part of it.  Every apostle volunteered. 
Pratt and Hyde were in Washington as political missionaries in June 1844.  Young and Woodruff were in Boston area as political missionaries in June 1844.  William Smith in Michigan as political missionary.  Parley Pratt in Illinois.
John Taylor and Willard Richards were not allowed to go. Richards was Smith’s personal secretary.  Taylor was the journalist who published the history of the church.  They ended up with Joseph in Carthage.

How successful were the political missionaries?
They held conventions and rallies wherever they went. Their platform was very popular. They had a newspaper clip-out to let Joseph know how they were doing.
Joseph remained in the Mansion House (the name of his house) and gets the newspaper clip-outs that pour in.
 Joseph Smith begins to say, “I’m popular” (incredulously) as he gets the clip-outs. 
Then he worried he was going to win.
Then,  “I think I’m going to win on the first electoral ballot!”  (realization)
Clip-outs were printed in the Nauvoo paper.
When Joseph becomes popular not everyone is thrilled.
William Law was in first presidency and he was called to repentance. He rebelled and was concerned about Joseph as president.  He forms a group of conspirators to stop it.  Joseph has bodyguards now.
Law and conspirators decide to counteract the newspaper articles and start the Nauvoo Expositor. They want to expose Joseph for who they believe him to be. They say bad things. Newspaper destroyed.  This leads to Joseph’s death.

Joseph killed at 38 years old. Hyrum killed at 44 years old. 
Joseph was a shot political candidate.  The next man shot while running for president was Robert F. Kennedy.

How did the election turn out?
Illinois voted democrat. LDS voted for Polk. 
Polk won the election.  Alamo started as he entered office.  He was the expansionist.
He wants Manifest Destiny. By the time he finished we were shore-to-shore.
Mormon Battalion helped with expansionist stuff. Made it to California.

Things to think about.
Joseph Smith concluded he had to run because the current candidates wouldn’t do things for the church.
Joseph Smith was a great prophet.

The First 100 Apostles: Apostolic Succession to the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints:
The Prophet Joseph Smith to Brigham Young (1829-1844) (by Kevin l. Tolley)
Part 1: Joseph Smith to Brigham Young

How apostles came in and how the left the Quorum of the Twelve
Towards the end, how they leave becomes less exciting.

First four apostles: Joseph Smith, Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer, Martin Harris
First charismatic apostles and special witnesses of this dispensation

Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery were arrested for disturbing the peace, they left the trial. They ran through the night, Oliver Cowdery collapsed, Joseph picked him up and kept running. They are wet and covered with mud. Finally after Joseph collapses and asks, “How long must we endure this?” Peter, James, and John then appeared and ordained them to the Mechizedek priesthood.
After the ordination, they had renewed strength and Oliver stopped complaining.  They were the first two elders of the church. 

No mention of authentic ordination date for Martin Harris. We don’t know when David Whitmer was ordained. 
D&C 18 told the 3 witnesses they had to find the Quorum of the Twelve members.
Joseph was directed to choose twelve apostles who must believe in the supernatural. He would know the proper persons as soon as he saw them.  So Joseph knew who the Twelve would be as soon as he met them, and he had to sit on that info and the three witnesses had to find them.
At this time there is no First Presidency until 1832.

In 1832, January, Joseph sustained as President of the high priesthood.  (President of just the priesthood) (Also he’s President of the Church)
Jesse Gauss and Sidney Ridgon were in the first presidency.

Then there are lots of things in the Sidney Ridgon’s life. Mobbed and dragged by a horse.  He had seizures. During travel to Missouri, he almost drowned.  Rigdon got in an argument with Phelps and then preached afterward (was clearly devilishly influenced, saying the church was rejected)  As a result, Joseph demanded Rigdon’s ministerial certificate and tore it up.
It took him three weeks to repent, then he came back and apologizes and Joseph brought him back into the First Presidency.

Jesse Gauss.
He went on a mission to the Shakers. (He had been a Shaker).
He was concerned about his wife who was still a Shaker. He failed.
His missionary companion was Zebedee Coltrin, who had bad migraines and sickness and wanted to go home and did so for medical reasons. 
Jesse disappeared completely.  Then he was excommunicated by Joseph Smith.
In D&C 81, they crossed out Jesse Gauss’s name and put in Fredrick G. Williams, who gets Jesse’s blessings. 

Joseph loved Frederick G. Williams, named one of his sons after him.
Assistant to the presidency is made Oliver Cowdery.  Only him and Hyrum Smith had this co-presidency office.

1835 Feb 14th. A reunion of Zion’s Camp.  Quorum of the Twelve must be organized. Joseph tells the three witnesses to go find them.  They choose Lyman Johnson, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball.  Joseph Smith agreed with all their choices. But the others were not there. Only three of the 12 showed up to the meeting. 
Six more apostles called the next day.
William Smith was the little brother of the prophet. 
The witnesses found more of the Twelve in another meeting later.
Lyman Johnson was the youngest of the group (23?) Later, the 12 would be organized by age. Before this, they would take turns being in charge of meetings.

In 1835, Thomas B. Marsh was the President of the Twelve in a document.

They do some weird things at the beginning.
How the Quorum of Twelve functions isn’t in the Bible, so they have to develop it.

Oct 1835. William Smith makes rude comments in a meeting run by Joseph Smith. Joseph told him he was out of place, he refused.
William was enraged, wouldn’t sit down unless he was knocked down.
Joseph left to calm down.
William was yelling out in the street how incompetent Joseph was.
Joseph and Hyrum talk to William in private.
Next day William was scripture studying with members and it turned into an argument. 
William attacks Joseph and beats him up while Joseph was getting his coat off. 
This beating happens in Nov. In Dec, someone suggests ex-ing William for un-Christianlike conduct and beating the prophet. 
Jan 2nd, William apologizes, saying he fought as a brother instead of as an apostle.
Joseph forgave him, brought him back in the twelve.

Over the next year, Kirtland Safety Society debacle happened.  Joseph wasn’t good at finances. Then there is lots of turmoil financially driven. 
Martin Harris, Johnson brothers, and Boynton come into the Kirtland temple armed, took podiums at the back. They were determined to take the temple over to get their money back, and they threatened to kill anyone who left.  Two men climbed out the window and got some people to help.
The rebels were excommunicated, they apologized, then they were allowed back in the Twelve.

Martin Harris left the church over other reasons. He thought the church left him and he lost confidence in Joseph. 

Joseph Smith put his father, Joseph Smith Sr., in the first presidency, his uncle, and his brother Hyrum too around this time to show them he cared about them.

Joseph attempted to take a personal loan from the anti-bank.  They made their own rules.
Joseph asked Frederick G. Williams for money and Williams refused on the grounds it wasn’t fiscally sound..
Joseph threatened to break him from his office if he didn’t give him the money. Williams said, “Break me from my office.”
After Joseph came back the next day, he wept like a baby and apologized. But word got out about Williams, so members didn’t sustain Williams for disobeying Joseph. 
So Williams left office because the people wouldn’t sustain him.
Hyrum Smith took his place.

Luke Johnson and Boynton lost confidence over financial matters.
Boynton was instrumental in inventing the torpedo.
Luke Johnson later returned to the church. Became a bishop in Utah.

1838 was a time of apostasy. Oliver Cowdery was excommunicated for not attending church, for practicing law, and some other incidents. He accused Joseph of adultery. Joseph never denied it, but told him not to talk about things he didn’t know anything about.

David Whitmer began speaking against the prophet.
Rigdon gave his salt sermon, Danites threatening apostates. 

William McClellan lost confidence over financial matters. 
He wanted to recoup losses, stole some of Joseph’s stuff for it. Told the sheriff to beat Joseph while he was imprisoned, but sheriff agreed to let McClellan fight Joseph.  McClellan wanted to do it with a club. Joseph was okay with that, but then McClellan didn’t want to do it after all.

John E. Page, John Taylor, Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff.  Underlined in D&C 118. Called.
Wilford Woodruff jumped in line in front of John Taylor because of age. Brigham Young switched the order back later.

George A Smith had a crazy wig he wore.

April 1839. Revelation for the Quorum to leave on their missions from the temple lot on a specific date. They snuck in the night the night before and had the meeting.

Thomas B. Marsh and Orson Hyde became disaffected and signed affidavits that brought about the Boggs Extermination Order.

Concerning the milk strippings story. There were other reprimands of Thomas B. Marsh at that time. He feels Joseph is handling the situation badly. He feels threatened by the Danites and he insists Joseph is incompetent and dangerous.

David Patten was the first martyr.
Thomas Marsh talked to someone and Orson Hyde saw him talking to someone—David Patten, who was dead at the time. Patten’s spirit told Marsh, “How soon you have forgotten our covenant that we would never leave the church.”
Marsh returned to the church after his wife died. Young required Marsh to apologize in general conference.

Orson Hyde returns under Joseph Smith, sneaking back into Nauvoo. He was distraught. Joseph ran out of the house to forgive him immediately. The Lord had showed Joseph Orson was coming and he couldn’t wait any longer.

Willard Richards ordained to the Twelve in England.
Lyman Wight was in Liberty Jail
John C. Bennett started “spiritual wifery” to seduce women.  He seduced Orson Pratt’s wife while Orson was on a mission. Orson lost confidence in Joseph for a time, thinking Joseph had authorized that (but he hadn’t).

Amasa Lyman called to Twelve.

Sidney Rigdon is asked to leave, but he doesn’t.

The First 100 Apostles: Apostolic Succession to the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints:
Brigham Young to Lorenzo Snow (1844-1901) (by Kevin l. Tolley)
In 1844 William Law was excommicated.
William  and Lucy Law wanted to be sealed, but Joseph did not seal them together.  Lucy invited Joseph into her house, but tried to trap him and demanded he seal her to him (Joseph).  Joseph escaped out a window. William tried to seduce a 14-year-old girl.
William Law was never part of the Twelve, just part of the First Presidency. (Odd)
June 1844, Joseph and Hyrum are martyred, while dissolved 1st pres.

Sidney had been ordained prophet, seer, and revelator, but was never ordained part of the Twelve.
Sidney was in Pittsburg. He has two major turning points in life 1) mobbing in  Kirtland. 2) Liberty Jail in Missouri and was let out of jail. He said  Jesus had not suffered as much as he (Sidney) had.
He was always sick, not very active.

Amasa Lyman was put in the Twelve for a while.

Brigham came back to Nauvoo fast.  As soon as Joseph was gone, Brigham became much more forceful. 
Brigham tried to talk to Sidney, but Sidney kept dodging him. Sidney holds a meeting with 1000s; he suggests there should be no more president of church and he should be the guardian of the church.
Brigham preached and his countenance looked and sounded like Joseph.  Brigham preached apostolic keys.
Most sustain Brigham, but there were other groups competing.
Sidney later excommunicated.

Joseph had wanted to release Sidney, but no one wanted to sustain that.
Sidney didn't know about all the endowment.
Sidney prophesied the Nauvoo temple would never be completed, so the Saints completed it to show he was wrong.

W.W. Phellps said William Smith was the only remaining Smith as Patriarch to the church. William thinks he's now in charge. Then Phelps re-tracts and says William is the "Patriarch for the church".

D&C 107 has things that suggests the Twelve should be in charge.
John C. Page loses confidence in Brigham Young. John Page was nicknamed the Sundial. But once Joseph was gone, he didn’t seem to know which end was up anymore.
He left and joined the Strangites.

Jame Strang. (not an apostle at all)
He and his Strangite followers went up to Wisconsin and thrived for a while, but then his church  killled James Strang because they found out his lover was dressed as a  man.

1846 July, Ezra T. Benson is called in and fills vacancy.

Brigham asked W.W. Phelps if it was time to organize first presidency. "It would take a  revelation"  There is no record of a specific revelation.
1847 Brigham  reorganizes First Pres. in Iowa-- Brham Young, Heber Kimball, Willard Richards.

Lyman Wight excommunicated.
Lyman went to Texas because of a prophecy by Joseph and wouldn't follow Young to Utah.

Charles C. Rich, Lorenzo Snow, Erastus Snow, Franklin D. Richards.
Willard Richards was the first apostle to die of natural causes.
Replaced by Jedediah M. Grant. (father of Heber J. Grant)

Big revival in Utah. Church leaders worried the Saints were getting soft. They encouraged the Saints to get rebaptized, live the Word of Wisdom.

Polygamy  resurged.
More Wives Than One, a book about polygamy. 
Men were in it for life, but women could get divorced if they wanted.

Brigham ordained three of his sons apostles. One of them never came into the Twelve.

Jedediah  M. Grant died at 40.
Died and was revived through priesthood blessing three different times in the space of a few days. Each time he came back, he taught Heber J. Grant about the spirit world.
At Jedidiah  Grant's funeral, Heber J Grant describes all the things Jededah taught  him about the spiritual world (Evidently this sermon is in the Journal of Discourses)

Patriarch gave Heber J Grant a blessing as an infant.

Daniel H. Wells was an apostle, but was never in the Quorum of the Twelve. (!!)

Parley P. Pratt & Eleanor McClean.
Eleanor’s husband would disappear for years and reappear, then disappear again. She met and married PPP while her husband was gone at length. Hector McClean hunted PPP down in Arkansas,  knocked him off horse, stabbed him twice.
8 bullet holes in PPP. Parley  was still alive. Shot again. Parley was still alive. Eventually he died.
George Q. Cannon fills the vacancy.

1861. John Taylor and Wilford Woodruff are switched in order. Brigham Young changed the order in general conference and declares it should be in order of ordination, not age.

Brigham Young Jr. ordained an apostle, but not a member of the Twelve.

Joseph F. Smith.
He was called on a mission at 16 because he punched a school teacher.
Joseph F. Smith had a book of different pictures of men’s facial hair styles and liked to try them out.
He is ordained an apostle.1866. He's made a counselor in the First Presidency.

Amaza Lyman is excommunicated in 1867 because of three sermons he gave in which he said you could make it to heaven without the atonement.
He got involved  with the Godbeites.  His son and grandson were called to the Twelve and stayed faithful.
In 1908 after his death the First Pres gave permission to for him to be re-baptized by proxy. His whole family stayed active.
Joseph F. Smith fills vacancy.

Heber  C. Kimball had a paralyzing wagon accident.
Angel Moroni came in a dream and told him his work was done and would return to bring him home.  He died in a week.

George A. Smith and his wig and false teeth.  When he pulled off his wig and false teeth one day, this startled an Indian.

Brigham Young Jr. jumps Joseph F Smith in seniority.

In 1868 the Quorums are all together for the first time.
The order of Brigham Young Jr. and Joseph F. Smith is flip-flopped again.

Albert Carrington brought in when Ezra T. Benson dies.
Brigham Young got 6 counselors.

Orson Hyde is removed seniority. Orson Pratt is removed seniority when they repent.
John W. Young becomes counselor 
[Sorry this part is a bit garbled]

Brigham Young passes away 1877.
Dies in the Lion House. His final words were, "Joseph, Joseph, Joseph."

First Presidency is not reorganized quickly.
Orson Hyde passed away and three different people write that heavenly choirs passed over the house as he died and they could hear individual  voices.

Moses Thatcher called to 12. He presides over church in Mexico.

Francis M. Lyman and John H. Smith called to 12.
Geroge Teasdale and Heber J Grant called to the 12.  Was 23 when called to be stake president of Toelle stake.

Heber J. Grant thought he would be called to mission and wasn't. He had to defy the devil verbally when devil told him the patriarch lied in the blessing he was given.

George Teasdale had an impression he would be called to the Twelve. Then he wasn’t called when he thought he would be. This caused him to feel he had been deceived, and he prayed hard for forgiveness for vanity and pride.
Then later he was called.

John Taylor didn't want to call his son because he thought it looked like nepotism.

Albert Carrington was excommuicated for adultery that happened over 12 years in England.
Afterward  he suffered a stroke and tried to repent over the rest of his life. 
Each six months afterward the 12 had a meeting to decide whether he could be re-baptized.

John Taylor passed away in hiding. He was a double-martyr because of Carthage and because of anti-polygamy stuff.

1889, first presidency reorganized.
Marriner W. Merrill, Abraham H Cannon, Anthon H. Lund called.
Merrill served as a bunch of offices at the same time.
Matthias F. Cowley called, Abraham Woodruff called
When brethren's health was bad, they would go to California and sit on the beach for a while.

Wilford Woodruff died in San Francisco.
Lorenzo Snow had Christ appear to him in the hallway of the church telling him to re-organize the first presidency immediately. No more long gaps between presidencies since then.  Gaps no longer than three days now.

Rudger Clawson called to the 12.
He was a missionary in Georgia. His companion was killed by a mob. Rudger defied the mob to shoot him. Joseph Standing, his companion, was shot in the face 23 times.
Rudger called into the First Pres. in 1901. He spent the shortest time in the presidency—5 days.

Reed Smoot was senator 30 years while being an apostles. He was prevented from voting. until they got to like  him.
They wanted him to be President of the United States if he would just stop being an apostle or Mormon, but he said he would rather be a deacon  in the church than be President of the US. [I’m curious about the source for this story.]

The First 100 Apostles: Apostolic Succession to the President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 
Joseph F. Smith to George Albert Smith (1901-1951)(by Kevin l. Tolley)
This is a dark period of history because not many people study it.1900-1950

Lorenzo Snow died, his counselors were released
Joseph F Smith is president. John R. Winder is a counselor. He’s not a 12, not an apostle. Just a high priest.

Brigham Young Jr. was President of the Twelve. Almost became president, but got reordered.

John Smith, Joseph F. Smith's brother, was the Patriarch who ordained Joseph  F. Smith prophet. That office has now been done away.
1902 Brigham Young Jr.

Hyrum Mack Smith, Joseph F. Smith's son was made an apostle.
Sometimes the prophet calls someone by revelation, sometimes he asks for  nominations from the 12.  Hyrum Mack Smith was nominated repeatedly.
(Someone only nominated is neat because they are worthy enough to serve, but doesn't have to. An example of this is also in the New Testament.  Tolley expresses admiration for these types of men.)

Francis Lyman dedicates the land of Russia for preaching of the gospel.
Elder Nelson rededicates it.

Zebedee Coltrin had an impression to give a blessing to 7-year-old George Albert Smith.  Tells him he will serve in the Quorem of the 12.
When George Albert Smith was called, he is sick for the first 10 years and has a hard time serving in the 12.
He had a dream of his grandfather. "What have you done with my name?" He realized he had never done anything of which his grandfather had to be ashamed.

Abraham O. Woodruff passes away in his 30s. 
He served in the church in Mexico. Wife gets smallpox. His wife died and was buried in Mexico. He dies in Texas.  In 1993, his descendents exhumed the bodies and buried the bodies together at Salt Lake City.

Charles W. Penrose. Called the 12, no cool stories about him. (sad face)

1904 Polygamy continued in other countries besides America until 1905.
John W. Taylor and Matthias Cowley were still performing plural marriages.  They believed it would continue forever.  Undocumented revelation from John Taylor, when final manifesto came out, they left.
Mattias Cowley eventually returned to church. John W. Taylor never returned. They couldn't sustain modern revelation.
Merrill passes away.

David O. McKay, and two others have clear documented revelations of seeing the Savior.
George F. Richards had a dream of the Savior.
Orson F. Witney had a vision of the Savior in the Garden of Gethsemane suffering. Savior appeared again. Jesus: "I  need to leave now"  Orson: "Take me with you" Jesus: "No, it isn't your time."  Savior was tall in his dream and Orson was a very tall man.
Tolley’s observation: It is wonderful that after the two apostles that wouldn't sustain revelation, there are three apostles with definite visions and revelation.

Anthony W. Ivans. 
He was record-keeper for the 1st presidency, was nominated while he was taking notes and he was surprised.  He was Heber J Grant's cousin.

John R. Winder died. In his last talk in general conference, he just bore his testimony and didn't preach.  Oct 1909

Joseph Fielding Smith called to 12.
Lots of Smiths in the 12.  Perhaps the Lord felt at that time that the best place to raise an apostle was in an apostle's home.

John A. Smith passes away 1911 the day after giving a talk in GC.

James  E. Talmage
Two competing stories of his call. 1) Called and never told about the call. 2) In his journal it says he was called 4pm.

Francis Lyman passes away. "Lives are for wearing out in the service of the Lord"

Heber J. Grant becomes President of 12 at age 60.
Stephen L Richards is called to 12. 

Hyrum Mack Smith gets sick with ruptured appendix. Doctor tries to save him.  Only a blessing from his father can save him. The blessing is "you're going to pass, and I will follow you soon after"  Jan 3rd 1918. 
Joseph F. Smith knows he will die, so he does a thorough study of death and  receives revelation D&C 138 on the spirit world.

Richard R. Lyman’s motto "Long prayers and long sermons doesn't bring about much if it  doesn't bring right living"  His dad is Frances Lyman
Nov 17 1918 Joseph F. Smith passes away.  It was against the law to have large private funeral during the Spanish Flu.

Dec 23 1918 Re-organization of 1st pres
Pattern of counselors going back to their previous place. Nominations of president.
Elder Melvin Ballard called to 12.  (M. Russell Ballard is his grandson) 
He received a manifestation after he sought the Lord. He saw Christ in a  dream.

Heber J Grant spent time with Charles Nibley. Nibley  recommended Anthony Ivans to be in the First Presidency, but Grant objected on the grounds Ivans was a democrat and Grant didn't want all democrats in the First Presidency.

John A. Widsoe was gone when he was called and he couldn’t be found for a while. Finally he was reached in a panicked call. Called to the 12. When he heard, he put away all his life and  dreams and put it all away even though he loved what he did. (He was an  academic at the time.)
He liked Biblical criticism.

Penrose passed at age 93, oldest member of the 12 in history
Charles Nibley was never an apostle, but was a high priest.

10 years with no movement in the 12.

Joseph  F. Merrill called to the 12. 
During the sustaining of church officers, Saints grumbled that he wasn't sustained separately, so they did sustaining again separately, worrying there would be objections. But no one objected.

Charles Nibley passed away.
Hugh Nibley says Charles said, "If an angel came through the door, I would jump through the window." (This statement apparently expresses Charles’ ideas that an angel would be scary to see.) He was a man with feelings and sensitivities. 
Charles Nibley was very wealthy too.  Charles passed Dec 1931.

J. Reuben  Clark called in 1933. At the time, Clark was an ambassador to Mexico and couldn't go back on his work. Ordained to the office of high priest.
Member of the  70, but not in the quorum.
Not ordained apostle for another 8 months.

James  Talmage dies 1933.
He had a talk show on the radio on Sunday night. He had a raspy throat, got a root beer to soothe it, but his throat kept bothering him. He went to his office while everyone was out because he didn’t want to bother anyone. He just had strep throat in his office curled up (a  dangerous disease at that time) He died a couple days later.

Charles A Callus. Mission president in southern states for previous 25 years. He loved the south.

Anthony Ivans died of a heart attack
David O McKay came to 1st Presidency.

Alonzo Hinckley had the shortest time in the 12. He had a blessing he would do  so.
He had stomach cancer. He tries to resign. He went to southern California to rusticate on the beach. He has a series of visions.  His father came to him 3 times and told him it was time to come home, but he refused and demanded healing because he had work to do. Finally he said he would sell his businesses. He was visited by three heavenly messengers. Finally he passed away.

Albert E. Bowen. Apostleship was never one of his dreams. Ordained apostle, called as assistant to the 12.
Presiding bishops are frequently called into the twelve.

Sylvester Q Cannon called to the 12. Was an apostle, but not in the 12.

Reed Smoot passed away.

Marion G. Romney called to assistant to the 12. Not an apostle. 
He was called out of the audience at general conference. He didn't remember hearing any of the other four  called because he was so surprised.

Rudger Clawson passes away. 
Hardest battles of life fought in the chamber of our own souls.
Spencer Kimball and Ezra Benson called to apostles at the same time.
Kimball slipped out of his chair "No, not me."
They were called at the same day, older one ordained first.
Ordained while on his knees.

Horrible ordeal for the Twelve. 
Richard R. Lyman. He met a young lady and sealed himself to her, started practicing polygamy in secret. It was found out. He was excommunicated.  Amy Lyman (his first wife) was general Relief Society president of the church at the time and asked to  be released from her calling. She felt no one took her seriously, but she wasn't released and the leaders sent a taxi to pick her up every day. She was released 5mon-1year later.

A newspaper reporter had a dream that Lyman Richard dies. Problem, name is wrong, he's not dead. He sent a reporter to report on the apostles’ health. Later, a press release came about the excommunication of  Richard Lyman.  Mark E. Peterson had this dream and was later called to the 12.

Charles Callus has a heart attack down in the south
Delbert Stapley had an impression he'd be called to the 12. He was scared to meet with  anyone. He comes to general conference after opening prayer, leaves before closing  prayer. He was found in the lobby, and called as apostle in the lobby.
Series of visions.

LDS Stories from the Pacific Islands: The Emerging Church in the Pacific (specificallyKiribati) (pronounced Kiribas) and Papua New Guinea (by Brett MacDonald)
The hardest buildings to preserve are not new but not so old they feel historical, usually about 50 years old.
In the same way, members there feel they don’t have a history to preserve yet. But they are learning and living the history.

Thoughts on a global-historical perspective of Christianity
Dangers of a single story about a person or place. You miss the complexity.
They (the countries) are interesting countries with interesting challenges.
By the time the first Anglo-Saxons were converted , Ethiopian Christianity was already in its 10th generation.
In 1614 Christianity was prohibited in Japan.
Many early Christians went east in addition to west.
Iraq was though the Middle Ages at least as much a cultural and spiritual heartland of Christianity as was France or Germany or indeed Ireland.
85 bishops in the Eastern church
Spirit among the Turks and the Tibetans.
There were Christian churches in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and India before England had its first archbishop.
We can’t understand Christian history without Asia, or Asian history without Christianity.  SO, WE NEED THE STORIES OF THE MEMBERS IN ASIA.
Christianity has recently become thoroughly global.
It is estimated that in 2050, 72% of Christians will live in Africa and Asia.
We see a pattern of God moving geographically to Middle East, Europe, North America to developing world. 
Moral: He goes where He’s wanted.

South Christianities shows us that newer churches read the Bible in a way that makes Christianity look totally different from the faith of a prosperous advanced society of Europe or North America.  They ask the same basic questions on how to meet basic needs that the early church did.
“Counsel together” meant one thing to us and a different thing to them.

When asked “What is the most important lesson from the story of Joseph in Egypt?”
North America Christians said, “Joseph remained pure”
African Christians said, “No matter how far from home he was or for how long, Joseph never forgot his family.”

Andrew Jenson had a future-looking perspective.
In 1895, Jenson traveled the Pacific and much of the globe as assistant church historian.
Traveling wasn’t always convenient.
Interesting journey story: He Walked 3 miles. 12 miles of no human habitation. Major rainstorm started. He and his companion took off all their clothes to keep them dry.

Jenson played a vital role in keeping alive the ideal of a universal church. Insisted on Mormon history have all different countries and cultural groups.

Kiribati  (pronounced KI-ra-BASS)
Least-visited countries on earth. 100,000 inhabitants on coral atolls.
It’s almost as wide as the continental United States
Only 2% of land is arable. Efforts to increase food security. Few seeds, few soil, little fresh water, few pollinating insects
Robert Louis Stevenson spent lots of time there and waited weeks for another ship to pass by and pick him up.
The island was a mere thread of residence. Unsure situation, improbable beauty. Little grew there that could be eaten and diet was meager and unvarying.

Tarawa is the main island on Kiribati.
In WWII, it was a major strategic location. Japanese built an airstrip there with tunnels, wire, mines. 
The US Marines had to dislodge them.  High cost of victory. 17 Japanese of 4000 solders survived the battle.
The island was devastated with garbage and bodies everywhere.  Stench of death.
New battles now fought on Tarawa: rising sea levels, diet of cheap western food, lots of amputations from diabetes.
The sacrament connects us to each other there.
The first LDS missionaries in 1975, now more than 2 dozen congregations there.

He broke his hip, couldn’t understand English. He prayed to be healed and promised he would be a missionary.
He taught himself English by using the Bible.
President of Mission visited. Yotuotuni was chosen to study in Tonga.
In Tonga, he learned he had enrolled in a Mormon school.
Tuo gained a testimony and was baptized.
Tetinecku was the first to join the church, but wasn’t activity.
Tuo found a girl he liked and wrote her notes in paper in library books. Then he would tell her about the awesome book he read and she would go read it and find his notes to her.
Tuo earned money for a ticket to go to the temple in New Zealand. He went to every session on the first day.
Returned every day the temple was open for a month.
He was the first to be sealed in the temple.
Tuo was asked to help with translation of the scriptures.  He studied in Provo and caught fish from the Provo river every night.
He took a draft of Book of Mormon back to his people.  The elders read it and wept.
Elder Sonenburg called Tuo as the first branch president in Kiribati.

Papua New Guinea.
Just north of Australia.  It’s still is not well-explored.
Some explorers thought they found the Tower of Babel because 1/3 of the world’s languages are in New Guinea.
In some way the church has been too successful there. They stopped conversions for a while because there were too many people joining for the leadership to handle it.
Some people were called to leadership before they had completely kept all the commandments of chastity.
First convert Auda Doudi. In 1980.

Some work done in New Guinea. Squatter settlements have 10Ks of people, wanting improved opportunities. They have a hard time gardening.
Boggy soil in the south.
Fish is the stable food.
MacDonald worked with leaders to help them train others to improve food production.
Food Production Problems: No veggies, bad soil, no seeds, too small place, hunger, need new ideas.
They prioritized the issues and voted.
Top priorities: New ideas, bad soil, hunger.  They wanted knowledge most.
The thing they were most interested in was a story of ancestors of Utah Territory 1855-56 when there was a severe food crisis with relentless drought when pioneers had to replant crops 5 times. People began stealing from neighbors.  As a result of low harvest, some paid less tithing.  The begging was particularly shocking. Someone stole a bag of four from President Woodruff. 
Leaders in New Guinea heard those stories and strongly identified with them.
(Utah solutions: Dig for roots, rather than beg, established ward fishing companies, )

Kiribati again..

He has no formal education. Has no opportunities. His son was a missionary, his daughter was a student.  How to meet the families needs?   
His brother built a fishing boat. Good fishing knowledge was guarded, but possessions are shared.
They caught 40 large tuna. But coming back, the engine died, the boat drifted into the open seas.
Month 1. Wife notified the guard her husband was missing.  Tsunami warning.  Searches, but searching called off.  
Wife hung her husband’s clothes in her hut’s ceiling as an expression of hope. (This is a traditional practice.) Prayed.  
Ukenio tried to stay mentally and physically strong as possible and would swim for a while.  Algae grew on the boat, attracting more fish, so the men survived on the ecosystem formed. 
There was a coconut in a strong current that Ukenio swam after and couldn’t get. He had to turn back to the boat or be swept away. He spent some time thinking about how to use that experience to teach his children about temptation.
Month 3 -- The boat seams started weakening.  Only two hours sleep at a time to bale water.  His nephew died. 
Month 4 they couldn’t bale much.  Semi-conscious state.  A thumping noise of a giant sea turtle revived Ukenio.  A Japanese fisherman found them.  Their strange ecosystem built around their boat meant they had enough food not to starve, but enough to draw attention.
They were found 1500 miles from home.
When asked what he thought about while lost at sea, he said: “Family, food, water, food, water, stories of Mormon pioneers’s struggles. Jesus.” He tried to remember all the names of Jesus.

[I walked out of that class thinking to myself, “How can I possibly complain about anything in my life?”]